The Battle of Stalingrad was a major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad. It was amongst the bloodiest battles in the history of warfare. In its defeat, the crippling losses suffered by Germany’s military proved to be insurmountable for the war. The battle was a turning point in the war, after which the German forces attained no further strategic victories in the East.
Top: German officer with a Russian PPSh 41 submachine gun taking cover in rubble.
Bottom: Soviet forces attacking north of Stalingrad in late November of 1942.
Top Picture: The Estates-General of 1789 was a general assembly summoned together by King Louis XVI to propse solutions to the government’s financial problems. The meeting was representation from the three French estates of the realm: the nobility, the Church, and the common people of France.
Bottom Picture: The Third Estate, the common people of France, who although were a majority only had a third of the representation in the meeting. The Third Estate created the Tennis Court Oath after the nobility locked them out of a Estates-General meeting. They congregated in a nearby tennis court where they took a solemn collective oath “not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established.”
The oath was both a revolutionary act, and an assertion that political authority derived from the people and their representatives rather than from the monarch.
Their solidarity forced King Louis XVI to order the clergy and the nobility to join with the Third Estate in the National Assembly.
And although only a paper victory for the common people of France, signified a push towards revolution.
Bloody Sunday (1905) was a massacre in Saint Petersburg, Russia that led to the 1905 Russian Revolution.
Pictured is a line of armed soldiers facing demonstrators at the Winter Palace in modern St. Petersburg.
The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
A flier calling for a rally in the Haymarket on May 4. Resulted in what we now know as the Haymarket Square Riot.
Liberation of Paris, 1944.
The capital region of France had been controlled by Nazi Germany since 1940 when Germany occupied the north and west of France, and when the Vichy regime was created.